Digestion Development - how modern feeding practices affect the natural digestive system
Previous articles in Trainer have looked at how the horse, regardless of what he has been developed to do, remains the nomadic, trickle feeding animal that nature designed him to be. We have also examined how modern diet and management, combined with the physical and mental stress imposed on the competition and racing animal are contributory factors in a variety of problems, including ‘stereotypy’ behaviour such as cribbing and windsucking, and the perennial problem of ulcers and colic.
We know that the horse is essentially a grazing animal, with a digestive tract designed specifically for long periods of foraging, which can be as much as 20 hours per day. Their stomachs seem surprisingly small to some people, in relation to their overall size and the stomach is designed to empty when only two thirds full. Horses cannot vomit so this mechanism is a vital safety function designed to prevent a lethal stomach rupture. Feed then travels from the stomach along the small intestine, an amazing 70-foot-long organ where most starch, sugar, fat, vitamins, minerals and some of the protein is digested and absorbed into the bloodstream. The residual nutrients and fibres then travel to the hindgut, a large fermentation chamber of up to 30 gallons of fibrous material, with literally millions of bacteria and organisms working to digest it. Volatile fatty acids produced by fibre-digesting bacteria provide as much as 70% of energy for horses on a forage diet. Some of the residual minerals, including phosperous, protein and water are absorbed from the large intestine and recycled in the body. B-vitamins are also produced by bacteria in a healthy horse’s hindgut. It is easy to see how efficient the system is for a forage-fed horse and how we begin to compromise that efficiency with modern diet. So where does it go wrong? Grains are much higher in starch compared to hay and grass, which the digestive tract is designed to process. Excess starch is not broken down by enzymes at the start of the process due to a number of factors, a lack of enzymes, starch that is too compact to be broken down or there is insufficient time as the feed goes from the mouth, foregut and hindgut in less than six hours. Lactic acid is produced in the hindgut by starch-digesting bacteria and reduces the hindgut pH, with the result that many entirely beneficial, fibre-digesting bacteria, unable to tolerate the increased acidity, die and release toxins into the hindgut. These toxins often results in colic and related problems. Thus we know that starch in the hindgut is a problem and reducing grain reduces the risk of problems, but what of the competition animal? Exciting and pertinent research by Dr Derek Cuddeford, lecturer at the Royal School of Veterinary Studies, has shown that a new form of pure, protected yeast can significantly improve fibre digestibility in the horse, resulting in increased energy available to the animal.
This activity has only been demonstrated with a limited number of yeast strains; an example of which is Biosaf Sc47 produced by Lesaffre Feed additives in France. Dr Cuddeford says that Biosaf Sc47 has been used to good effect in starch-rich diets for high performance cattle and other ruminants for some time. “As soon as the yeast is swallowed it goes straight into the site of fermentation in the rumen where it has been shown to stimulate the growth of fibre-digesting organisms by mopping up oxygen and rapidly fermentable material (such as starch) as well as stimulating the numbers of organisms that use up lactic acid in the gut. “Obviously, this would be great if the same could happen during fermentation in the horse’s large intestine due to the risk of acidosis (excess lactic acid) in horses fed large amounts of starch. It seems that yeast must be actively metabolising and thus alive, to fulfil some of its most important functions. This can be a problem in the horse where the site of activity is in the large intestine and thus, yeast has to survive passage through the highly acid stomach in order to reach the caecum and be viable.”
The producers of Biosaf SC47 use a special process whereby live yeast cells are coated with dried, dead yeast cells that act as a protective barrier to the live yeast inside, likened to a Malteser sweet, which more mature readers will recall was advertised as ‘melt in the mouth and not in the hand’! In contrast, ordinary ‘instant yeasts’, such as Baker’s yeast, are highly vulnerable to attack by enzymes, liquids, acids, etc. Research carried out at The Royal School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh set out to test whether Biosaf Sc47 would survive passage through the horse’s stomach and small intestine. Firstly, some laboratory tests were set up to determine the resistance of this yeast preparation to exposure to acid and the enzyme pepsin normally produced in the stomach. Dr Cuddeford says they were able to show that the Biosaf Sc47 survived prolonged exposure to this strong acid/enzyme combination and it was estimated that one third of an oral dose would survive passage through the horse’s gut to reach the site of fermentation and to be active. “Some further studies were undertaken to test survival through the whole of the horses gut simply by feeding horses Biosaf Sc47 and collecting the droppings and analysing them for the presence of the yeast. Active yeast was recovered from the faeces confirming that this ‘protected’ yeast survived in the horse’s gut and was thus able to benefit the horse. However, it is important to remember that yeast cannot colonise the horse’s gut and thus must be fed on a daily basis. “Live yeast in the large intestine of the horse will utilise any free sugars, scavenge oxygen, stimulate both the growth of lactate-utilising organisms and those bacteria that ferment plant cell wall.
The overall effect is to enhance the digestive process in the horse’s large intestine and to reduce the risk of sub-clinical disease (acidosis) in those animals fed infrequent large meals. Apart from the role of Biosaf Sc47 yeast in stabilising the horse’s hind gut, yeast cell wall contains complex sugars known as mannan- oligosaccharides (MOS) that bind to pathogens thereby preventing their attachment to the gut wall, and thus preventing them from interfering with absorption of nutrients etc. “Thus, certain strains of yeast, together with yeast cell wall, can fulfil very important functions within the horse and this activity has been verified by quite a large number of experiments.” This is an exciting development in equine nutrition with significant implications for the high-performance horse. UK equine supplement and balancer manufacturer TopSpec includes Biosaf SC47 in its Bloodstock and Racing balancers.